CONTEMPLATIVE READING: Growing deeper through the Word.

Reading a phone book (do those still exist?) provides me with information about how to communicate with another person if they are in the phone book. Reading Sacred Scriptures is unlike reading any other book. Because it is God’s Word, authorized through the Church Universal, it is from God. As such, like Lectio Divina and Liturgy of the Hours, we find ourselves taking into our minds and hearts that which is dynamic and pure energy. Granted, each of us assimilates this Love according to our capacity (capacitas dei). My Lay Cistercian practices and charisms are all designed to place me in the real presence of Christ, and the rest is up to me. God’s grace and energy are a constant flow. My reception is not. Here is how I do spiritual reading, although I apply it to all my Cistercian practices. I practice this Cistercian way mostly at home because I am 82+ and have problems remembering if I took my medicine sometimes.


I nearly always try to proceed with any prayer with fifteen minutes of reflection to prepare my upper room (Matthew 6:5) to host my friends, The Trinity. I am mindful of St. Benedict’s admonition to his monks about humility in Chapter Seven, First Step in being humble: Fear of the Lord. I ask Jesus to have mercy on me, a sinner, not worthy to sit in the presence of a God I have never seen, nor can I fathom who I seek as my center. Then, I stop and clear my mind and wait.

In silence and solitude, both externally and internally, I read the Scriptures, now realizing that I will encounter the transformative Word within human words. Philippians 2:5-12. I wait and slowly read the first passage, which, for example, is one of my favorites and happens to be my center. Here it is for you to read.

Plea for Unity and Humility.*

1If there is any encouragement in Christ, any solace in love, any participation in the Spirit, any compassion and mercy,

2complete my joy by being of the same mind, with the same love, united in heart, thinking one thing.a

3Do nothing out of selfishness or out of vainglory; rather, humbly regard others as more important than yourselves,b

4each looking out not for his own interests, but [also] everyone for those of others.c

5Have among yourselves the same attitude that is also yours in Christ Jesus,*

6Who,* though he was in the form of God,d

did not regard equality with God something to be grasped.*

7Rather, he emptied himself,

taking the form of a slave,

coming in human likeness;*

and found human in appearance,e

8he humbled himself,f

becoming obedient to death, even death on a cross.*

9Because of this, God greatly exalted him

and bestowed on him the name*

that is above every name,g

10that at the name of Jesus

every knee should bend,*

of those in heaven and on earth and under the earth,h

11and every tongue confess that

Jesus Christ is Lord,*

to the glory of God the Father.i

Obedience and Service in the World.*

12j So then, my beloved, obedient as you have always been, not only when I am present but all the more now when I am absent, work out your salvation with fear and trembling.*

13For God is the one who, for his good purpose, works in you both to desire and to work.k

14Do everything without grumbling or questioning,l

15that you may be blameless and innocent, children of God without blemish in the midst of a crooked and perverse generation,* among whom you shine like lights in the world,m

16as you hold on to the word of life, so that my boast for the day of Christ may be that I did not run in vain or labor in vain.n

17But, even if I am poured out as a libation* upon the sacrificial service of your faith, I rejoice and share my joy with all of you.o

18In the same way you also should rejoice and share your joy with me.p

Read it slowly one time, stop and reflect on what you read. Can you think of one thing that impressed you?


Don’t hurry. Take your time for five minutes to just wait in the presence of Christ using the power of the Holy Spirit. Remember, silence is spoken in your upper room.

Reread this passage; only this time, think of it as a prayer that Christ gave you. Abandon any thoughts you have about what this means. Wait for what Christ says.

THIRD READING: Share the Word

Reread this passage. This time try to move it from your head to your heart. Your head wants to know about it and to place it in neat categories, like, “just say the prayer.” Sharing in this stage means to stop to look at Christ in the chair next to you and ask Him questions. The sharing is not with other human beings but with Jesus Christ, fully human, fully divine, and your friend. Don’t put words in Christ’s mouth. Listen “with the ear of the heart,” as St. Benedict suggests.

FOURTH READING: Be what you have read, prayed, and shared.

When Christ is ready, begin. This is the area of transformation, where you become what you read. It is not you who chose me, says Christ, I have chosen you. The purpose of my spiritual life is to be more like Christ and less like me. I can only do this by waiting in the presence of Christ through the power of the Holy Spirit and listening. Jesus speaks through energy, which is the way of Love. The Holy Spirit speaks through energy, which is the truth of Hope. We all approach the Father, the Life of Faith, through, with, and in Christ by the power of the Holy Spirit. This fourth reading sheds all the assumptions I have and all the hidden agendas I have built up over my lifetime. The lower nature (human) assumes, the higher nature as it is capable. Being in the presence of Christ for me is not just the horizontal time I spend in private or public prayer; it extends the scope of prayer to include my whole day. As a retired broken-down, old Lay Cistercian, I have time to pray. I could spend that time watching the plastic flowers grow or watching Bishop Barron’s YouTube. Whatever I do, I seek God, and that is a prayer. St. Benedict’s dictum rings true: “That in all things, may God be glorified.” This is not only praying daily; my day is a prayer itself to the Father in reparation for my sins and failure to see Christ. Hindsight can be a beast sometimes.

FIFTH READING: I become more like Christ. Changing dissonance of Original Sin into the resonance of Objective Truth.

I realize that I have had it wrong all these years. I don’t mean I was on the wrong track, but instead I emphasized what I could do for God through my reading or prayer. Now, through the painful process of conversio morae (daily conversion from my will to that of my will infused with God’s own will), I have come to believe that Jesus is the Messiah.


30Now Jesus did many other signs in the presence of [his] disciples that are not written in this book.s

31But these are written that you may [come to] believe that Jesus is the Messiah, the Son of God, and that through this belief you may have life in his name.t

The commentary at the end of this passage, as contained in the USCCB (United States Conference of Catholic Bishops) text, contains an explanation that I find helpful as my Faith is not just an accumulation of my past good or erroneous accomplishments but also what I anticipate to be my next challenge of mind and heart.

* [20:3031] These verses are clearly a conclusion to the gospel and express its purpose. While many manuscripts read come to believe, possibly implying a missionary purpose for John’s gospel, a small number of quite early ones read “continue to believe,” suggesting that the audience consists of Christians whose faith is to be deepened by the book; cf. Jn 19:35.

These five levels of growth in my prayer life have led me to a more profound love for Scripture and Tradition. Reading from Sacred Scriptures is the core of my spiritual awareness, but only if I grow beyond reading to being what the Scriptures say. As I understand it, tradition is the Church Universal reading these Scriptures and making comments down through the centuries. The early men and women in the Church (Church Fathers and Mothers) read this same passage I did and wrote about it.

If you want a spiritual experience that takes you to new levels of prayerfulness, read the following at

NOTE: This is a long list. I just “pick and choose” from this for my Tradition Reading. Tradition is the writing of those who have read Sacred Scriptures and commented on them, the deliberations and authority of the Ecumenical Councils, and the writing of the Magisterium. This is the application of Sacred Scripture as each age unfolds.

Alexander of Alexandria [SAINT]
  – Epistles on the Arian Heresy and the Deposition of Arius

Alexander of Lycopolis
  – Of the Manicheans

Ambrose (340-397) [SAINT] [DOCTOR]
  – On the Christian Faith (De fide)
  – On the Holy Spirit
  – On the Mysteries
  – On Repentance
  – On the Duties of the Clergy
  – Concerning Virgins
  – Concerning Widows
  – On the Death of Satyrus
  – Memorial of Symmachus
  – Sermon against Auxentius
  – Letters

Aphrahat/Aphraates (c. 280-367)
  – Demonstrations

  – Acts of the Disputation with the Heresiarch Manes

Aristides the Philosopher
  – The Apology

  – Against the Heathen

Athanasius [SAINT] [DOCTOR]
  – Against the Heathen
  – On the Incarnation of the Word
  – Deposition of Arius
  – Statement of Faith
  – On Luke 10:22 (Matthew 11:27)
  – Circular Letter
  – Apologia Contra Arianos
  – De Decretis
  – De Sententia Dionysii
  – Vita S. Antoni (Life of St. Anthony)
  – Ad Episcopus Aegypti et Libyae
  – Apologia ad Constantium
  – Apologia de Fuga
  – Historia Arianorum
  – Four Discourses Against the Arians
  – De Synodis
  – Tomus ad Antiochenos
  – Ad Afros Epistola Synodica
  – Historia Acephala
  – Letters

  – A Plea for the Christians
  – The Resurrection of the Dead

Augustine of Hippo [SAINT] [DOCTOR]
  – Confessions
  – Letters
  – City of God
  – Christian Doctrine
  – On the Holy Trinity
  – The Enchiridion
  – On the Catechising of the Uninstructed
  – On Faith and the Creed
  – Concerning Faith of Things Not Seen
  – On the Profit of Believing
  – On the Creed: A Sermon to Catechumens
  – On Continence
  – On the Good of Marriage
  – On Holy Virginity
  – On the Good of Widowhood
  – On Lying
  – To Consentius: Against Lying
  – On the Work of Monks
  – On Patience
  – On Care to be Had For the Dead
  – On the Morals of the Catholic Church
  – On the Morals of the Manichaeans
  – On Two Souls, Against the Manichaeans
  – Acts or Disputation Against Fortunatus the Manichaean
  – Against the Epistle of Manichaeus Called Fundamental
  – Reply to Faustus the Manichaean
  – Concerning the Nature of Good, Against the Manichaeans
  – On Baptism, Against the Donatists
  – Answer to Letters of Petilian, Bishop of Cirta
  – Merits and Remission of Sin, and Infant Baptism
  – On the Spirit and the Letter
  – On Nature and Grace
  – On Man’s Perfection in Righteousness
  – On the Proceedings of Pelagius
  – On the Grace of Christ, and on Original Sin
  – On Marriage and Concupiscence
  – On the Soul and its Origin
  – Against Two Letters of the Pelagians
  – On Grace and Free Will
  – On Rebuke and Grace
  – The Predestination of the Saints/Gift of Perseverance
  – Our Lord’s Sermon on the Mount
  – The Harmony of the Gospels
  – Sermons on Selected Lessons of the New Testament
  – Tractates on the Gospel of John
  – Homilies on the First Epistle of John
  – Soliloquies
  – The Enarrations, or Expositions, on the Psalms

Bardesanes (154-222)
  – The Book of the Laws of Various Countries

Barnabas [SAINT]
  – Epistle of Barnabas

Basil the Great [SAINT] [DOCTOR]
  – De Spiritu Sancto
  – Nine Homilies of Hexaemeron
  – Letters

  – Fragments

Clement of Alexandria [SAINT]
  – Who is the Rich Man That Shall Be Saved?
  – Exhortation to the Heathen
  – The Instructor
  – The Stromata, or Miscellanies
  – Fragments

Clement of Rome [SAINT]
  – First Epistle
  – Second Epistle [SPURIOUS]
  – Two Epistles Concerning Virginity [SPURIOUS]
  – Recognitions [SPURIOUS]
  – Clementine Homilies [SPURIOUS]

  – Writings

Cyprian of Carthage [SAINT]
  – The Life and Passion of Cyprian By Pontius the Deacon
  – The Epistles of Cyprian
  – The Treatises of Cyprian
  – The Seventh Council of Carthage

Cyril of Jerusalem [SAINT] [DOCTOR]
  – Catechetical Lectures

Dionysius of Rome [SAINT]
  – Against the Sabellians

Dionysius the Great
  – Epistles and Epistolary Fragments
  – Exegetical Fragments
  – Miscellaneous Fragments

Ephraim the Syrian (306-373) [SAINT] [DOCTOR]
  – Nisibene Hymns
  – Miscellaneous Hymns — On the Nativity of Christ in the FleshFor the Feast of the Epiphany, and On the Faith (“The Pearl”)
  – Homilies — On Our LordOn Admonition and Repentance, and On the Sinful Woman

Eusebius of Caesarea (c. 265-c. 340)
  – Church History
  – Life of Constantine
  – Oration of Constantine “to the Assembly of the Saints”
  – Oration in Praise of Constantine
  – Letter on the Council of Nicaea

Gennadius of Marseilles
  – Illustrious Men (Supplement to Jerome)

Gregory the Great, Pope (c. 540-604) [SAINT] [DOCTOR]
  – Pastoral Rule
  – Register of Letters

Gregory Nazianzen [SAINT] [DOCTOR]
  – Orations
  – Letters

Gregory of Nyssa [SAINT]
  – Against Eunomius
  – Answer to Eunomius’ Second Book
  – On the Holy Spirit (Against the Followers of Macedonius)
  – On the Holy Trinity, and of the Godhead of the Holy Spirit (To Eustathius)
  – On “Not Three Gods” (To Ablabius)
  – On the Faith (To Simplicius)
  – On Virginity
  – On Infants’ Early Deaths
  – On Pilgrimages
  – On the Making of Man
  – On the Soul and the Resurrection
  – The Great Catechism
  – Funeral Oration on Meletius
  – On the Baptism of Christ (Sermon for the Day of Lights)
  – Letters

Gregory Thaumaturgus [SAINT]
  – A Declaration of Faith
  – A Metaphrase of the Book of Ecclesiastes
  – Canonical Epistle
  – The Oration and Panegyric Addressed to Origen
  – A Sectional Confession of Faith
  – On the Trinity
  – Twelve Topics on the Faith
  – On the Subject of the Soul
  – Four Homilies
  – On All the Saints
  – On Matthew 6:22-23

  – The Pastor (or “The Shepherd”)

Hilary of Poitiers [SAINT] [DOCTOR]
  – On the Councils, or the Faith of the Easterns
  – On the Trinity
  – Homilies on the Psalms

Hippolytus [SAINT]
  – The Refutation of All Heresies
  – Some Exegetical Fragments of Hippolytus
  – Expository Treatise Against the Jews
  – Against Plato, On the Cause of the Universe
  – Against the Heresy of Noetus
  – Discourse on the Holy Theophany
  – The Antichrist
  – The End of the World (Pseudonymous)
  – The Apostles and the Disciples (Pseudonymous)

Ignatius of Antioch [SAINT]
  – Epistle to the Ephesians
  – Epistle to the Magnesians
  – Epistle to the Trallians
  – Epistle to the Romans
  – Epistle to the Philadelphians
  – Epistle to the Smyrnæans
  – Epistle to Polycarp
  – The Martyrdom of Ignatius
  – The Spurious Epistles

Irenaeus of Lyons [SAINT]
  – Adversus haereses
  – Fragments from the Lost Writings of Irenaeus

  – Letters
  – The Perpetual Virginity of Blessed Mary
  – To Pammachius Against John of Jerusalem
  – The Dialogue Against the Luciferians
  – The Life of Malchus, the Captive Monk
  – The Life of S. Hilarion
  – The Life of Paulus the First Hermit
  – Against Jovinianus
  – Against Vigilantius
  – Against the Pelagians
  – Prefaces
  – De Viris Illustribus (Illustrious Men)
  – Apology for himself against the Books of Rufinus

John of Damascus [SAINT] [DOCTOR]
  – Exposition of the Faith

John Cassian (c. 360-c. 435)
  – Institutes
  – Conferences
  – On the Incarnation of the Lord (Against Nestorius)

John Chrysostom [SAINT] [DOCTOR]
  – Homilies on the Gospel of St. Matthew
  – Homilies on Acts
  – Homilies on Romans
  – Homilies on First Corinthians
  – Homilies on Second Corinthians
  – Homilies on Ephesians
  – Homilies on Philippians
  – Homilies on Colossians
  – Homilies on First Thessalonians
  – Homilies on Second Thessalonians
  – Homilies on First Timothy
  – Homilies on Second Timothy
  – Homilies on Titus
  – Homilies on Philemon
  – Commentary on Galatians
  – Homilies on the Gospel of John
  – Homilies on the Epistle to the Hebrews
  – Homilies on the Statues
  – No One Can Harm the Man Who Does Not Injure Himself
  – Two Letters to Theodore After His Fall
  – Letter to a Young Widow
  – Homily on St. Ignatius
  – Homily on St. Babylas
  – Homily Concerning “Lowliness of Mind”
  – Instructions to Catechumens
  – Three Homilies on the Power of Satan
  – Homily on the Passage “Father, if it be possible . . .”
  – Homily on the Paralytic Lowered Through the Roof
  – Homily on the Passage “If your enemy hunger, feed him.”
  – Homily Against Publishing the Errors of the Brethren
  – First Homily on Eutropius
  – Second Homily on Eutropius (After His Captivity)
  – Four Letters to Olympias
  – Letter to Some Priests of Antioch
  – Correspondence with Pope Innocent I
  – On the Priesthood

Julius Africanus
  – Extant Writings

Justin Martyr [SAINT]
  – First Apology
  – Second Apology
  – Dialogue with Trypho
  – Hortatory Address to the Greeks
  – On the Sole Government of God
  – Fragments of the Lost Work on the Resurrection
  – Miscellaneous Fragments from Lost Writings
  – Martyrdom of Justin, Chariton, and other Roman Martyrs
  – Discourse to the Greeks

  – The Divine Institutes
  – The Epitome of the Divine Institutes
  – On the Anger of God
  – On the Workmanship of God
  – Of the Manner In Which the Persecutors Died
  – Fragments of Lactantius
  – The Phoenix
  – A Poem on the Passion of the Lord

Leo the Great, Pope (c. 395-461) [SAINT] [DOCTOR]
  – Sermons
  – Letters

  – Epistle

Mar Jacob (452-521)
  – Canticle on Edessa
  – Homily on Habib the Martyr
  – Homily on Guria and Shamuna

  – Epistle to Diognetus

  – The Banquet of the Ten Virgins
  – Concerning Free Will
  – From the Discourse on the Resurrection
  – Fragments
  – Oration Concerning Simeon and Anna
  – Oration on the Psalms
  – Three Fragments from the Homily on the Cross and Passion of Christ

Minucius Felix
  – Octavius

Moses of Chorene (c. 400-c. 490)
  – History of Armenia

  – Treatise Concerning the Trinity
  – On the Jewish Meats

  – De Principiis
  – Africanus to Origen
  – Origen to Africanus
  – Origen to Gregory
  – Against Celsus
  – Letter of Origen to Gregory
  – Commentary on the Gospel of John
  – Commentary on the Gospel of Matthew

Pamphilus [SAINT]
  – Exposition on the Acts of the Apostles

Papias [SAINT]
  – Fragments

Peter of Alexandria [SAINT]
  – The Genuine Acts
  – The Canonical Epistle
  – Fragments

Polycarp [SAINT]
  – Epistle to the Philippians
  – The Martyrdom of Polycarp

  – Apology
  – Commentary on the Apostles’ Creed
  – Prefaces and Other Works

Socrates Scholasticus (c. 379-c. 450)
  – Ecclesiastical History

Sozomen (c. 375-c. 447)
  – Ecclesiastical History

Sulpitius Severus (c. 363-c. 420)
  – On the Life of St. Martin
  – Letters — Genuine and Dubious
  – Dialogues
  – Sacred History

  – Address to the Greeks
  – Fragments
  – The Diatessaron

  – The Apology
  – On Idolatry
  – De Spectaculis (The Shows)
  – De Corona (The Chaplet)
  – To Scapula
  – Ad Nationes
  – An Answer to the Jews
  – The Soul’s Testimony
  – A Treatise on the Soul
  – The Prescription Against Heretics
  – Against Marcion
  – Against Hermogenes
  – Against the Valentinians
  – On the Flesh of Christ
  – On the Resurrection of the Flesh
  – Against Praxeas
  – Scorpiace
  – Appendix (Against All Heresies)
  – On Repentance
  – On Baptism
  – On Prayer
  – Ad Martyras
  – The Martyrdom of Perpetua and Felicity (Sometimes attributed to Tertullian)
  – Of Patience
  – On the Pallium
  – On the Apparel of Women
  – On the Veiling of Virgins
  – To His Wife
  – On Exhortation to Chastity
  – On Monogamy
  – On Modesty
  – On Fasting
  – De Fuga in Persecutione

  – Counter-Statements to Cyril’s 12 Anathemas against Nestorius
  – Ecclesiastical History
  – Dialogues (“Eranistes” or “Polymorphus”)
  – Demonstrations by Syllogism
  – Letters

  – Excerpts

  – Theophilus to Autolycus

  – Poem on Easter

Victorinus [SAINT]
  – On the Creation of the World
  – Commentary on the Apocalypse of the Blessed John

Vincent of Lérins (d. c. 450) [SAINT]
  – Commonitory for the Antiquity and Universality of the Catholic Faith


  – The Liturgy of James
  – The Liturgy of Mark
  – The Liturgy of the Blessed Apostles

  – Carthage under Cyprian (257) [LOCAL]
  – Ancyra (314) [LOCAL]
  – Neocaesarea (315) [LOCAL]
  – Nicaea I (325) [ECUMENICAL]
  – Antioch in Encaeniis (341) [LOCAL]
  – Gangra (343) [LOCAL]
  – Sardica (344) [LOCAL]
  – Constantinople I (381) [ECUMENICAL]
  – Constantinople (382) [LOCAL]
  – Laodicea (390) [LOCAL]
  – Constantinople under Nectarius (394) [LOCAL]
  – Carthage (419) [LOCAL]
  – Ephesus (431) [ECUMENICAL]
  – Chalcedon (451) [ECUMENICAL]
  – Constantinople II (553) [ECUMENICAL]
  – Constantinople III (680) [ECUMENICAL]
  – Constantinople/”Trullo”/Quinisext (692) [LOCAL]
  – Nicaea II (787) [ECUMENICAL]

  – Apocalypse of Peter (c. 130)
  – Protoevangelium of James (c. 150)
  – Acts of Paul and Thecla (c. 180)
  – Gospel of Peter (c. 190) [DOCETIC]
  – The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs (c. 192) [EBIONITIC]
  – Acts of Peter and Paul (c. 200)
  – Gospel of Thomas (c. 200) [GNOSTIC]
  – Acts of Thomas (c. 240) [GNOSTIC]
  – Acts of Thaddaeus (c. 250)
  – Acts of Andrew (c. 260) [GNOSTIC]
  – Acts of Xanthippe and Polyxena (c. 270)
  – Acts of John [DOCETIC]
  – Acts of Philip (c. 350)
  – Apocalypse of Paul (c. 380)
  – Gospel of Nicodemus (Including “Acta Pilati”) (c. 150-400)
  – The Doctrine of Addai (c. 400) — This is a Syriac version of the earlier Acts of Thaddaeus (s.v.)
  – Assumption of Mary (c. 400)
  – History of Joseph the Carpenter (c. 400)
  – Gospel of Pseudo-Matthew (c. 400)
  – Acts of Barnabas (c. 500)
  – Acts of Bartholomew (c. 500) [NESTORIAN]
  – Acts and Martyrdom of St. Matthew the Apostle (c. 550) [ABYSSINIAN]
  – Arabic Gospel of the Infancy of the Saviour (c. 600)
  – Avenging of the Saviour (c. 700)
  – Apocalypse of John (unknown date; late)
  – Apocalypse of Moses (unknown date) [JUDAISTIC]
  – Apocalypse of Esdras (unknown date) [JUDAISTIC]
  – Testament of Abraham (unknown date) [JUDAISTIC]
  – Narrative of Zosimus (unknown date)
  – Gospel of the Nativity of Mary (unknown date; late)
  – Narrative of Joseph of Arimathea (unknown date; late)
  – Report of Pontius Pilate (unknown date; late)
  – Letter of Pontius Pilate (unknown date; late)
  – Giving Up of Pontius Pilate (unknown date; late)
  – Death of Pilate (unknown date; late)
  – Apocalypse of the Virgin (unknown date; very late)
  – Apocalypse of Sedrach (unknown date; very late)
  – Acts of Andrew and Matthias
  – Acts of Peter and Andrew
  – Consummation of Thomas the Apostle

  – The Didache (c. 100)
  – Apostolic Constitutions (c. 400)
  – The Legend of Barlaam and Josaphat
  – The Passion of the Scillitan Martyrs (c. 180)
  – A Treatise Against the Heretic Novatian (c. 255)
  – A Treatise on Re-Baptism (c. 255)
  – Remains of the Second and Third Centuries (various dates)
  – Apostolic Canons (c. 400) — See Apostolic Constitutions, Book VIII, Chapter 47
  – Acts of Sharbil (unknown date) [SYRIAC]
  – The Martyrdom of Barsamya (unknown date) [SYRIAC]
  – Extracts from Various Books Concerning Abgar the King and Addaeus the Apostle (unknown date) [SYRIAC]
  – The Teaching of the Apostles (unknown date) [SYRIAC]
  – The Teaching of Simon Cephas in the City of Rome (unknown date) [SYRIAC]
  – Martyrdom of Habib the Deacon (unknown date) [SYRIAC]
  – Martyrdom of the Holy Confessors Shamuna, Guria, and Habib (unknown date) [SYRIAC]
  – A Letter of Mara, Son of Serapion (unknown date) [SYRIAC]
  – Ambrose (unknown date) [SYRIAC]
  – The False Decretals (c. 850)


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